Seals from Judean Kingdom period shed light on life in ancient Jerusalem

Jpost Israel News

By Daniel K. Eisenbud / September 4, 2017
A complete seal bearing the name “Achiav Ben Menachem.”

A complete seal bearing the name “Achiav Ben Menachem.”. (photo credit:ISRAELI ANTIQUITIES AUTHORITY/ CLARA AMIT)

A rare collection of ancient seals inscribed with the names of officials dating to the Judean Kingdom, prior to the Babylonian destruction, was recently unearthed near the Old City’s walls during excavations conducted by the Israel Antiquities Authority.

Dozens of seals, made of small pieces of clay used to officially close letters, were well preserved in the City of David despite the fires that once engulfed the ancient capital, and serve as evidence of their owners.

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According to Ortal Chalaf and Dr. Joe Uziel, directors of the excavation funded by the El Ir David (ELAD) organization, the seals illustrate the advanced administrative underpinnings of Jerusalem during the First Temple period.

“The earliest seals bear mostly a series of pictures,” the archeologists said in a joint statement Monday. “It appears that instead of writing the names of the clerks, symbols were used to show who the signatory was, or what he was sealing.”

During later stages of the period – from the time of King Hezekiah (approximately 700 BCE) and up to the destruction of Jerusalem, in 586 BCE – the seals bear the names of clerks in early Hebrew script.

Dr. Joe Uziel with ancient seals at the City of David. (Eliyahu Yania/ The City of David)Dr. Joe Uziel with ancient seals at the City of David. (Eliyahu Yania/ The City of David)

“Through these findings, we learn not only about the developed administrative systems in the city, but also about the residents and those who served in the civil service,” they noted.

Some of the seals are inscribed with biblical names, several of which are still used today, such as Pinchas.

“One particularly interesting seal mentions a man by the name of ‘Achiav Ben Menachem,’” they said.

“These two names are known in the context of the Kingdom of Israel: Menachem was a king of Israel, while Achiav does not appear in the Bible, but his name resembles that of Achav (Ahab) – the infamous king of Israel from the tales of the prophet Elijah.”

Although the spelling of the name differs somewhat, they said it appears to identify the same person.

“The version of the name that appears on the seal discovered, Achav, appears as well in the Book of Jeremiah in the Septuagint, as well as in Flavius Josephus (Antiquities of the Jews 15: 7-8),” they said.

Chalaf and Uziel added that the appearance of the name Achiav is interesting for two main reasons.

“First, because it serves as further testimony to the names which are familiar to us from the Kingdom of Israel in the Bible, and which appear in Judah during the period following the destruction of the Kingdom of Israel,” they said.

“These names are part of the evidence that after the exile of the Tribes of Israel, refugees arrived in Jerusalem from the northern kingdom, and found their way into senior positions in Jerusalem’s administration.”

While Achav is portrayed as a negative figure in the Bible, his name continues to be in use, albeit in a differently spelled version.

“It was used both in Judea during the latter days of the First Temple, as reflected in Jeremiah and on the seal; and also after the destruction in the Babylonian exile, and up until the Second Temple period, as seen in the writings of Flavius Josephus,” the researchers said.

The stamps, along with other archaeological findings discovered during recent excavations, will be exhibited to the public for the first time at the 18th City of David research conference, the annual archaeological conference held by the Megalim Institute, on September 7th at the City of David National Park.

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About johnmhummasti

Was the victim of Human Rights Abuses (e.g. Hummasti v Bell, 98-3651-JTC) while a patient in the custody of the US Attorney General and hospitalized under 18 USC 4241 through 4244, et seq.! Interests: Biblical Studies, Talmudic Studies, Dead Sea (Yam Melek [Sea of Kings Soferim]) Scrolls, Scribal (Stam Sofer) Traditions, Cantorial (Hazzan) Psalms (Tehillim). Illustrated Calligraphy (e.g. Ketuvim [Jewish Marriage Contracts], Poetry). Self Published Manuscripts and Screen Plays at yhummastiscribd web site:
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